As the name explains, in simple words it is an electronic board which sits with the battery and manages, controls, protects the power flow from and to the battery. The main motive of having a BMS is to keep the battery safe.
Now, Batteries as you know are a power source having some chemicals inside which give out electrical energy. This electrical energy may be used for any application. The most prominent application nowadays is the usage of batteries in Electric Vehicles.
In the Electric Vehicle domain, the battery users generally don’t worry much about this board in detail, if it just states that the circuit will be cut-off during any emergency situation, it seems more than sufficient to them. If it only has to protect, it would rather be called a Battery Protection Board.
Apart from the over-limit protection, a good BMS is also responsible for State of Charge estimation, State of Health estimation, Cell Balancing, Depth of Discharge control, State of power estimation, Data logging for cycle life monitor etc.
The significance of a BMS can be determined by how accurately it conveys information about what happens inside a battery to the user/controller in order to have the most efficient use of the power source.
When we drive a petrol vehicle, we see the petrol analog meter or just open the tank lid and judge how many kilometres are left or up to which destination we can drive with the left fuel. But with EVs it is going to be slightly different. Battery behavior is not the same as of that of fuel, nowadays where lithium ion batteries are majorly used, it is not so simple to measure what exact capacity is remaining and how long will it last.
So just imagine at any point while driving you actually do not know how long you can drive it for. That’s a serious issue!
Not only for you but accurate estimations and measurements give a very important feedback to the controllers in the vehicle which in turn take the protective actions. It reduces the risk of damage up to a great extent.
It is so calculated that an optimized performance of the battery increases the lifetime of the battery as well. That’s how important it is to read the battery properly, use it and feed it the way it needs.
The first and foremost people who need to consider this are the vehicle manufacturers and later the customers who are buying the vehicle. The demand of locally made solutions are important to support the manufacturers as well.
All in all, if we forecast a future of EVs it is important to build the industry.
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